Micro-Grid and Net Zero Energy Solutions
"Net Zero Energy" to Become $1.3 Trillion/year Industry by 2035
What is a Micro-Grid?
According to the Department of Energy, a micro-grid is "a group of interconnected loads and distributed energy resources within clearly defined electrical boundaries that acts as a single controllable entity with respect to the grid. A micro-grid can connect and disconnect from the grid to enable it to operate in both grid-connected or island-mode."
A micro-grid typically has one or more "distributed energy resources" that provide the power/energy for the microgrid.
Clean Power Generation Solutions
Clean power generation systems are a superior "micro-grid" and demand side management solution for data centers, hospitals, universities, municipal utility districts and new real estate developments/subdivisions seeking "net zero energy" solutions.
CHP Systems (Cogeneration and Trigeneration) Plants
Have Very High Efficiencies, Low Fuel Costs & Low Emissions
The CHP System below is Rated at 900 kW and Features:
(2) Natural Gas Engines @ 450 kW each on one Skid with Optional
Selective Catalytic Reduction system that removes Nitrogen Oxides to "non-detect."
The Effective Heat Rate of the CHP
System below is
4100 btu/kW with a Net System Efficiency of 92%.
Our CHP Systems may be the best solution for your company's economic and environmental sustainability as we "upgrade" natural gas to clean power with our clean power generation solutions. Our emissions abatement solutions reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) to "non-detect" and can be installed and operated in most EPA non-attainment regions!
With Natural Gas at < $5.00/mmbtu, our Clean Power Generation plants generate power for about $0.04 / kWh (fuel cost). With operations & maintenance added, that's about 5.5 cents /kWh - or approximately 50% - 60% less than most electric rates.
Our CHP Systems and Dispersed Generation power plants are an ideal solution for electric utilities, data centers, electric co-ops, electrical sub-stations and hospitals. Our high-efficiency CHP Systems eliminate blackouts, electric grid supply problems and significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions and hazardous air pollutants associated with electric power generation.
For qualified clients we will design, build, finance, own, operate & maintain a new:
Organic Rankine Cycle
Waste Heat Recovery
system, through a Power
Purchase Agreement that guarantees
a minimum 10% reduction in our client's energy expenses.
(NOTE: Engineering and related interim project development expenses may be at client's expense but will be refunded
at the close of Power Purchase Agreement or other project financing. Some of our engineering and EPC services
may be provided by one of our Top-ranked ENR Engineering Procurement Construction partner companies.)
To receive a preliminary no-obligation review of your energy, engineering or
send an introductory email to us at the following email address:
info (at) DemandSideManagement .com
Feb 14, 2012
by the Renewable Energy Institute
HR 4017, the Smart Energy Act, was introduced in the U.S. House of Representatives by Representatives Charles Bass (R-NH) and Jim Matheson (D-UT). The Smart Energy Act seeks to establish financing mechanisms for energy efficiency retrofits for buildings and also to set a national goal to double the amount of power generated by CHP Systems which includes cogeneration and trigeneration systems, to 170 Gigawatts by 2020.
What is Demand Side Management?
to the Department of Energy, Demand Side Management or "DSM," refers to
taken on the customer's side of the meter to change the amount or timing of
energy consumption. Utility DSM programs offer a variety of measures that can
reduce energy consumption and consumer energy expenses. Electricity DSM
strategies have the goal of maximizing end-use efficiency to avoid or postpone
the construction of new generating plants." Therefore, Demand
Side Management, is the process of managing the consumption
of energy, generally to optimize available and planned generation resources.
While not every business is a candidate for onsite power generation, such as an onsite cogeneration or trigeneration energy system, however, your company may be a great candidate for other energy-saving solutions. One of these is Demand Side Management, or "DSM". We help commercial, industrial and utility clients by providing cost-effective DSM, clean power and renewable energy solutions.
Demand-side management (DSM) programs consist of the planning, implementing,
and monitoring activities of electric utilities that are designed to encourage
consumers to modify their level and pattern of electricity usage.
In the past, the primary objective of most DSM programs was to provide cost-effective energy and capacity resources to help defer the need for new sources of power, including generating facilities, power purchases, and transmission and distribution capacity additions. However, due to changes occurring within the industry, electric utilities are also using DSM to enhance customer service. DSM refers only to energy and load-shape modifying activities undertaken in response to utility-administered programs. It does not refer to energy and load-shape changes arising from the normal operation of the marketplace or from government-mandated energy-efficiency standards.
Historical Information of DSM (1999)
In 1999, 848 electric utilities report having demand-side management (DSM) programs. Of these, 459 are classified as large, and 389 are classified as small utilities. This is a decrease of 124 utilities from 1998.(1) DSM costs were almost unchanged at 1.4 billion dollars in both 1998 and 1999.
Energy Savings for the 459 large electric utilities increased to 50.6 billion kilowatt hours, 1.4 billion kilowatt hours more than in 1998. These energy savings represent 1.5 percent of annual electric sales of 3,312 billion kilowatthours(2) to ultimate consumers in 1999.
Actual peak load reductions for large utilities decreased in 1999 to 26,455 megawatts. Potential peak load reductions of 43,570 megawatts were an increase of 2,140 over 1998.
In 1999, incremental energy savings for large utilities were 3.1 billion kilowatt hours, incremental actual peak load reductions were 2,263 megawatts.
Technologies Used in Demand Side Management:
These energy conservation technologies are implemented to reduce total energy use. Specific technologies include energy-efficient lighting, appliances, and building equipment, all of which can be found on the EREN Buildings Energy Efficiency page. For energy efficiency at industrial sites, see the EREN Industrial Energy Efficiency page.
These technologies are used to smooth out the peaks and dips in energy demand — by reducing consumption at peak times ("peak shaving"), increasing it during off-peak times ("valley filling"), or shifting the load from peak to off-peak periods — to maximize use of efficient baseload generation and reduce the need for spinning reserves.
Energy management control systems (EMCSs) can be used to switch electrical equipment on or off for load leveling purposes. Some EMCSs enable direct off-site control (by the utility) of user equipment. Typically applied to heating, cooling, ventilation, and lighting loads, EMCSs can also be used to invoke on-site generators, thereby reducing peak demand for grid electricity. Energy storage devices located on the customer's side of the meter can be used to shift the timing of energy consumption.
Issues Involving the Implementation Demand Side Management Solutions Include: Public Benefits Programs, Rate Schedules, Time-of-Use Rates, Power Factor Charges, and Real-Time-Pricing
Public Benefits Programs
Prior to electricity industry restructuring, utilities were responsible for a variety of programs (including DSM) that meet social objectives. Under restructuring, funding for these programs is typically through a small surcharge ("wires charge" or "system benefits charge") on utility bills.
Utilities can structure their rates to encourage customers to modify their pattern of energy use.
rates involve charging higher prices for peak electricity as a way to shift
demand to off-peak periods. Interruptible rates offer discounts in exchange
for a user commitment to reduce demand when requested by the utility.
Power Factor Charges
factor charges can be implemented to discourage commercial and industrial
utility customers from partially loading their electrical equipment, as this
requires the utility to generate extra current to cover the resulting system
Real-time pricing is where the electricity price varies continuously (or hour by hour) based on the utility's load and the different types of power plants that have to be operated to satisfy that demand.
What is Automated Demand Response?
Demand Response is a Demand Side Management solution that is
specifically designed for a customer's specific location, energy/power
requirements, and also for the specific electric rates for that customer's
location. Automated Demand Response does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a facility through receipt of an external communications signal.
Automated Demand Response is a rather new area of DSM technologies and may
provide a lucrative revenue stream for customers who can curtail electric load in response to demand incentives, ICAP payments, and/or commodity prices.
Automated demand response technology seeks to automatically, through
software and hardware applications, to respond to variations in the
electricity/power market prices.
Demand Response or Demand Side Management can be achieved through demand reduction, by shifting load to a less expensive time period, or by substituting another resource for delivered electricity (such as natural gas or onsite power generation, also known as "distributed generation."
Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve electric grid reliability, manage electricity costs, and ensure that customers receive signals that encourage load reduction during times when the electric grid is near its capacity. The two main drivers for widespread demand responsiveness are the prevention of future electricity crises and the reduction of electricity prices. Additional goals for price responsiveness include equity through cost of service pricing, and customer control of electricity usage and bills. The technology developed and evaluated in this report could be used to support numerous forms of DR programs and tariffs.
A recent pilot test to enable an Automatic Demand Response system in California has revealed several lessons that are important to consider for a wider application of a regional or statewide Demand Response Program.
The six facilities involved in the site testing were from diverse areas of our economy. The test subjects included a major retail food marketer and one of their retail grocery stores, financial services buildings for a major bank, a postal services facility, a federal government office building, a state university site, and ancillary buildings to a pharmaceutical research company. Although these organizations are all serving diverse purposes and customers, they share some underlying common characteristics that make their simultaneous study worthwhile from a market transformation perspective. These are large organizations. Energy efficiency is neither their core business nor are the decision-makers who will enable this technology powerful players in their organizations. The management of buildings is perceived to be a small issue for top management and unless something goes wrong, little attention is paid to the building manager's problems. All of these organizations contract out a major part of their technical building operating systems. Control systems and energy management systems are proprietary. Their systems do not easily interact with one another. Management is, with the exception of one site, not electronically or computer literate enough to understand the full dimensions of the technology they have purchased. Despite the research teams development of a simple, straightforward method of informing them about the features of the demand response program, they had significant difficulty enabling their systems to meet the needs of the research. The research team had to step in and work directly with their vendors and contractors at all but one location. All of the participants have volunteered to participate in the study for altruistic reasons, that is, to help find solutions to California's energy problems. They have provided support in workmen, access to sites and vendors, and money to participate. Their efforts have revealed organizational and technical system barriers to the implementation of a wide scale program.
What is Demand Response and How is it Different from "Demand Side Management"?
"Demand Response" is a subset of Demand Side Management (DSM) or a potential Demand Side Management program solution which helps make the electric grid much more efficient and balanced by assisting the electric grid's commercial and industrial customers reduce their electric demand, and/or shifts the time period when they use their electricity, and/or prioritizes the way they use electricity, and in so doing, reduces their overall energy costs. A Demand Side Management Program will include measures that promotes the following:
Reduced customer peak and overall energy demand
Improves the electric grid's reliability
Balances the electric grid through increased efficiency
Manages electricity costs
Conservation through both behavioral and operational changes
And provide systems that encourage load shifting or load shedding during times when the electric grid is near its capacity or electric power prices are high
Demand Response has also been defined as a "Demand Side Management" subset that is a set of time dependent activities that reduces or shifts electricity use of selected customers.
Electric power generation and distribution systems are strongly affected by supply-side policies (how, when, and where to generate electricity, how to couple generation into the grid, how to transmit and distribute generated electricity) and demand-side policies (pricing schemes, conservation efforts, customer premises automation, and, in extreme circumstances, rolling blackouts). Demand-side programs focus on reducing the peak-to-average demand profiles through automation in the customer premises.
What are Demand Response Programs?
Demand Response Programs are programs usually designed and offered by electric utilities that offers those clients that sign-up for specific DR programs with financial incentives and other benefits that help those participating customers to curtail energy use. These actions by the electric utilities and participating clients provide a reliable, predictable amount of power (megawatts) that the ISO's and RTO's can count on during an emergency when energy supplies are low, and there is an inadequate amount of available power generation. The electric utilities typically require that those customers that enroll in their DR program(s) install certain software and hardware, that communicates with these client's online energy management systems, and can control these client's electric power requirements as needed.
What is Battery Energy Storage?
Battery Energy Storage, and Battery Energy Storage systems (BESS) use stored electrical power in batteries, and feed this energy to the electric grid (building, or facility) at times when it makes economic sense.
For a "Net Zero Energy" building or facility, a Solar Cogeneration, or Solar Trigeneration energy system is used that stores excess solar power in the Battery Energy Storage system during the daytime, for use when the sun goes down, and during inclement weather.
Battery Energy Storage is an ideal solution for utility-scale wind farms, particularly in Texas, when most of the renewable energy is generated at night when the power isn't needed.
Battery Energy Storage is a leading "dispatchable wind" solution making wind power available 24 x 7.
And, Battery Energy Storage is an ideal demand side management, peak shifting or load leveling solution as well as reducing emissions
According to Sandia Labs in their report titled; "Energy Storage for the Electricity Grid; Benefits and Market Potential Assessment Guide" (February 2010), the market for energy storage exceeds $100 billion during the next ten years.
What is Bulk Energy Storage?
Bulk energy storage refers to various methods to "store" electricity within an electrical power grid.
Electrical energy can be stored during times that electrical generation from power plants exceeds the consumption by customers and the stored energy can then be utilized at times when consumption of electricity exceeds generation of electricity. Bulk energy storage permits power generation to be maintained at a more constant level, avoiding the sharp spikes in power generation so that the power plants can be more efficiently operated - reducing fuel consumption thereby reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
According to Sandia Labs in their report titled; "Energy Storage for the Electricity Grid; Benefits and Market Potential Assessment Guide" (February 2010), the market for energy storage exceeds $100 billion during the next ten years.
What are CHP Systems?
A CHP System - also known as a cogeneration plant, is the simultaneous production of power and thermal energy.
Stated another way, a CHP System integrates an onsite, "decentralized energy" (DE) or "dispersed generation" power and energy system with thermally-activated power and energy technologies such waste heat recovery and/or absorption chillers for heating and/or cooling applications.
Systems achieve these greater energy efficiencies
through the conversion of exhaust or reject heat from power generation into
needed energy services like cooling and heating of buildings as well as
campuses. This is called "Waste
Heat Recovery" or "Recycled
Energy." Development of "packaged" or
Systems for end-use applications, such as commercial and
institutional buildings, is something the founder of our company has been
involved with since the mid 1980's.
In the past, Cogeneration plants have been economically attractive only in sizes above several megawatts. The emergence of a number of small generation technologies, including fuel cells, advanced low emissions engines, and gas turbines with outputs in the 1000 kW - 5000 kW range, should extend the benefits of Integrated Energy Systems to a much larger user base, with a consequent increase in national energy and environmental benefits.
For example, the application of CHP Systems (including Absorption Chillers - or - ADsorption Chillers) in commercial buildings could reduce commercial building energy consumption by 30%.
of such smaller-scale packaged CHP
Systems provides a major breakthrough in energy efficiency
technology, energy savings as well as reduced greenhouse
gas emissions. And, by locating the power generation at or near the
end-user/consumer, i.e. their facility, building, or campus, the difficulties in
siting and building new electric transmission and electric distribution
infrastructures to meet today's increasing power demand are minimized.
There are numerous markets for Cogeneration / Trigeneration plants, CHP Systems, District Energy Systems for commercial or institutional buildings, government facilities, and district energy systems that distribute thermal energy to buildings in a college campus, hospital complex, industrial park, food processing operations, refrigerated warehouses, and also very attractive for cities.
What is "Cogeneration"?
Did you know that 10% of our nation's electricity now comes from "cogeneration" plants?
is so efficient, it saves its customers up to 40% on their energy expenses, and
provides even greater savings to our environment through significant reductions
in fuel usage and much lower greenhouse
Cogeneration - also known as “combined heat and power” (CHP), cogen, district energy, total energy, and combined cycle, is the simultaneous production of heat (usually in the form of hot water and/or steam) and power, utilizing one primary fuel such as natural gas, or a renewable fuel, such as Biomethane, B100 Biodiesel, or Synthesis Gas.
Cogeneration technology is not the latest industry buzz-word being touted as the solution to our nation's energy woes. Cogeneration is a proven technology that has been around for over 120 years!
Our nation's first commercial power plant was a cogeneration plant that was designed and built by Thomas Edison in 1882 in New York. Our nation's first commercial power plant was called the "Pearl Street Station."
What is Compressed Air Energy Storage?
Compressed Air Energy Storage is one of the emerging "Bulk Energy Storage" technologies for storing energy - typically the energy is generated and stored during off-peak periods, and dispatched to the electric grid during peak demand times.
One Bulk Energy Storage method is Compressed Air Energy Storage - since the wind doesn't always provide enough energy for wind turbine generators to generate electricity, will store the wind energy when they generate power and "off-peak electricity" to pressurize and store air underground. The air can be used later, by releasing it to drive generators.
The problem with wind energy - particularly in Texas and the wind belt, much of the wind power is generated at night-time, when the power isn't as valuable. "Dispatchable Wind" power becomes a reality with Compressed Air Energy Storage - making wind energy available in real time, or "saved" for later when power is needed.
"Bulk energy storage is truly one of the most promising new areas of the electricity industry. The Energy Storage Council believes that bulk energy storage will become the "sixth dimension" of the electricity value chain following fuels/energy sources, generation, transmission, delivery, and customer energy services." http://www.energystoragecouncil.org/aboutenergystorage.htm
For more information on Bulk Energy Storage, visit: www.BulkEnergyStorage.com
Department of Energy (DOE) is presently working with several states to build Compressed
Air Energy Storage parks, which would integrate a 75- to 150-megawatt
(MW) wind farms, that are integrated with the Compressed
Air Energy Storage parks.
Before a Compressed Air Energy Storage can be used, the underground caverns that store the wind energy, must be of the right geological size, depth formation and cap rock structure.
CAES Diagram courtesy Dept of Energy
Compressed Air Energy Storage facilities will operate on off-peak electricity during nighttime hours. They will use the output from nearby wind power plants to operate when overall demand on the power grid is low and the utility dispatcher has curtailed output from the wind power plant. During the energy storage cycle, a compressor pushes air into the porous rock that may be several thousand feet underground and beneath the layers of impermeable cap rock. When demand for electricity rises, the stored air will be released, heated, and used to drive electric generators.
Diagram Courtesy: Imperial College
Compressed Air Energy Storage has been in use for more than 20 years in demonstration projects, and two facilities — one at 290 MW in Huntorf, Germany that began operations in 1978, and another in Alabama, that began operating in 1991. The Compressed Air Energy Storage facility in Alabama is rated at 100 MW.
Decentralized Energy is the Best Way to Generate Clean and Green Energy!
How we make and distribute electricity is changing!
The electric power generation, transmission and distribution system (the electric "grid") is changing and evolving from the electric grid of the 19th and 20th centuries, which was inefficient, highly-polluting, very expensive and “dumb.”
"old" way of generating and distributing energy resembles this slide:
Some customers will choose to dis-connect from the grid entirely. (Electric grid represented by the small light blue circles in the slide below.)
Typical "central" power plants and the electric utility companies that own them will either be shut-down, closed or go out of business due to one or more of the following: failed business model, inordinate expenses related to central power plants that are inefficient, excessive pollution/emissions, high costs, continued reliance on the use of fossil fuels to generate energy, and the failure to provide efficient, carbon free energy and pollution free power.
Carbon free energy and pollution free power reduces our dependence on foreign oil and makes us Energy Independent while reducing and eliminating Greenhouse Gas Emissions.
What is "Dispatchable Wind"?
To define "dispatchable wind" we must first define, in general, "dispatchable generation."
Dispatchable generation refers to the various sources of electric power that can be used/consumed or "dispatched" at the instant it's needed. This means the numerous power plants within an electric grid must be running and online, generating electricity, when consumers need the power. The problems with wind power generation, are that in most parts of the country, the wind power is generated at night, when the power is not needed as much since the "base load" power plants, the nuclear and coal fired power plants, are already running. With the exception of battery energy storage and compressed air energy storage, wind power cannot be stored, and therefore the wind resources are not able to operate at optimum efficiencies, and the resource is not fully utilized. Therefore, power generated from wind power generation assets is highly non-dispatchable.
Wind power generation assets must be optimized so as to make the power from these assets available during peak demand periods. Dispatchable wind means having the ability to deploy power generated from wind power generation assets, whenever the power is needed, just like fossil-fuel power generation assets.
What is an Energy Master Plan?
Now that greenhouse gas reporting is a vital and urgent issue for thousands of business in the U.S., and as they will now have to report their greenhouse gas emissions to the EPA. Our Energy Master Plan format has been updated to include "emissions abatement" strategies.
Our energy master planning services are also focused in a broader focus as well for our customers interested in sustainable energy solutions for reducing their carbon footprint, fossil fuel intensity, total energy expenses, potential for blackouts as well as their overall vulnerabilities to being "tied" to their specific electric utility. Our energy master planning services also improve the air quality and work environment for all of our client's stakeholders through our focus on triple bottom-line results.
Our energy master planning services are not solely focused on our client's facilities' "demand side" of the energy equation, but also how our client's energy is acquired and purchased on their supply side. This understanding that supply and demand side planning is equally important enabled a holistic review of how CUMC uses and pays for energy and the impact of these sources on the environment.
Our energy master plan begins with a review of our client's past three years electricity, natural gas, oil, waste and water expenditures and depending on the final requirements and project scope authorized by the client, will typically include;
Perform ASHRAE " Level 2" Energy Audit
Perform a "retro" commissioning study
Provide a "benchmark" of client's energy use and their greenhouse gas emissions
Review client's current energy procurement methods and develop new strategies for reducing energy expenses
Identify opportunities for onsite power generation, including cogeneration, ecogeneration or trigeneration energy systems as well as renewable energy technologies such as; Distributed PV, Solar Cogeneration and Waste to Fuel
Review existing Power Purchase Agreements and all other energy agreements/contracts.
Identify external funding opportunities such as the use of Power Purchase Agreements
Identify current energy management system and/or building automation system potential
Identify LEED opportunities
What are Flywheel Energy Storage systems?
Flywheel Energy Storage systems act as mechanical batteries that store power kinetically in the form of a rotating mass, or "flywheel."
When the grid goes down, the power stored by the rotating flywheel is converted to electrical energy through the flywheel’s integrated electric generator. The system provides the DC energy to the Uninterruptible Power Supplies or "UPS" system until grid power is restored or the facility's back-up power generator can be started. Once either the utility is restored or the genset provides power to the input of the UPS system, the Flywheel Energy Storage system will be re-charged by taking some current from the DC bus of the Flywheel Energy Storage until it is back up to full speed.
What is Frequency Regulation?
The electric grid is kept in balance at 60 hz. Any deviation from this may cause serious problems ranging from damage to destruction of electrical equipment to a blackout. Because the supply and demand of electricity is always changing, the grid's frequency is always changing and it is critical the electric grid to be kept in balance and maintain 60 hz. The continuous and instantaneous balancing of supply and demand of electricity is known as "frequency regulation" or frequency response.
Flywheel Energy Storage systems follow the regulation signal within a fraction of a percent. Unlike generation based frequency regulation, no fuel is consumed, and no emissions are generated. Analysis of presently used frequency regulation signals indicates that an energy storage module, which can store or deliver 1 MW for 15 minutes, would provide regulation services superior to services currently provided by generators.
According to Pike Research, the requirements for frequency regulation is expected to double between now and 2020.
is Load Leveling?
Load Leveling is one of several demand side management technologies that are used to smooth out the peaks and dips in energy demand — by reducing consumption at peak times ("peak shaving"), increasing it during off-peak times ("valley filling"), or shifting the load from peak to off-peak periods — to maximize use of efficient baseload generation and reduce the need for spinning reserves.
What is Locational Marginal Pricing?
Marginal Pricing, or LMP, is a market-pricing solution
for ensuring the efficient use of the electric power transmission system when
"congestion" occurs within the electric power grid.
What is Congestion?
occurs within the electric power grid when one or more restrictions on the grid
prevents the economic - and most expensive power supply - from serving electric
power demand. For example, the electric power transmission lines may not have
enough capacity to carry all of the electricity to meet the demand in a specific
location. When this happens, it is referred to as a "transmission
constraint." Locational Marginal Pricing includes the costs for supplying
the more expensive electricity in these "constrained" locations, which
then provides a precise, market-based solution for pricing the electricity, and
includes the "costs of congestion."
Locational Marginal Pricing provides the participants of the marketplace, a clear, transparent and accurate signal of the price of electricity at every location along the electric power transmission lines within a specified electric grid. These LMP prices, in turn, reveal the value of locating new generation, upgrading transmission, or reducing electricity consumption elements needed in a well-functioning market to alleviate constraints, increase competition and improve the system's capabilities for meeting the electric power demand.
What is Peak Shifting?
Peak Shifting is a highly cost-effective method of reducing electric utility expenses. When electric utility commercial or industrial customers use electricity can make a big difference on their monthly electric bills. By shifting the time of day that electric power is used, a commercial or industrial customer can reduce their " demand charge" portion of their electric bill during peak times of the day. This reduces the overall cost of power each month for the customer.
most products, electricity can’t be stored after it's generated. Electricity
must be generated - and consumed - at the time of demand by a utility's
customer. Electricity usage continuously varies throughout the day, and varies
from month-to-month and season-to-season. Each day, there are "peak"
demand periods of usage during which time the electric utilities must generate
additional amounts of electricity to meet these peak demands for all of their
To meet this additional peak demand for electricity utilities use “peaking generators” also called "peaking plants" or simply "peakers." These peaking plants are the least efficient methods of generating power, meaning they generate less power with more fuel (and their associated greenhouse gas emissions) compared with the utility's base-load generators. These peaking plants typically burn oil or natural gas to produce the electricity and are brought on line only during "peak periods" of the day and run for short periods.
peaking generators generally cost less to build than other types of generators,
they also have relatively high fuel costs because they are typically much less
efficient in the use of fuel.
Therefore, "Peak Shifting" is a method that addresses shifts the time of day when electricity is used, reducing the need for peaking plants and can reduce a commercial or industrial customer's electric bills, if correctly implemented.
What is Pumped Hydro Storage?
Pumped hydro storage is a method of storing energy that is generated when the price of electric power is low - and used at a time when the price of power is high. Pumped hydro storage - acts as a battery of sorts, with the ability to deliver electricity on demand.
Pumped hydro storage works by pumping water from a reservoir that is located at a lower elevation - to a reservoir that is located at a higher elevation - and during the period of time electricity usage is low as well as the price of selling electricity. When the power demand peaks, so does the price of electricity but this also happens to coincide when wind power is not available. This is when the water that was pumped up to the higher elevation reservoir is released, power is generated from the hydroelectric power plant, and the electricity is then released to the electric grid.
What is "Trigeneration"?
Trigeneration is the simultaneous production of three forms of energy - typically, Cooling, Heating and Power - from only one fuel input. Put another way, our trigeneration power plants produce three different types of energy for the price of one.
Trigeneration energy systems can reach overall system efficiencies of 86% to 93%. Typical "central" power plants, that do not need the heat generated from the combustion and power generation process, are only about 33% efficient.
Trigeneration Diagram & Description
Trigeneration Power Plants' Have the Highest System Efficiencies and are
About 300 % More Efficient than Typical Central Power Plants
Trigeneration plants are installed at locations that can benefit from all three forms of energy. These types of installations that install trigeneration energy systems are called "onsite power generation" also referred to as "decentralized energy."
One of our company's principal's first experience with the design and development of a trigeneration power plant was the trigeneration power plant installation at Rice University in 1987 where our trigeneration development team started out by conducting a "cogeneration" feasibility study. The EPC contractor that Rice University selected installed the trigeneration power which included a 4.0 MW Ruston gas turbine power plant, along with waste heat recovery boilers and Absorption Chillers. A "waste heat recovery boiler" captures the heat from the exhaust of the gas turbine. From there, the recovered energy was converted to chilled water - originally from (3) Hitachi Absorption Chillers - 2 were rated at 1,000 tons each, and the third Hitachi Absorption Chiller was rated at 1,500 tons. The Hitachi Absorption Chillers were replaced shortly after their installation by the EPC company. The first trigeneration plant at Rice University was so successful, they added a second 5.0 MW trigeneration plant so today, Rice University is now generating about 9.0 MW of electricity, and also producing the cooling and heating the university needs from the trigeneration plant and circulating the trigeneration energy around its campus.
Trigeneration's "Super-Efficiency" compared
with other competing technologies
As you can see, there is No Competition for Trigeneration!
Trigeneration power plants are the ideal onsite power and energy solution for customers that include: Data Centers, Hospitals, Universities, Airports, Central Plants, Colleges & Universities, Dairies, Server Farms, District Heating & Cooling Plants, Food Processing Plants, Golf/Country Clubs, Government Buildings, Grocery Stores, Hotels, Manufacturing Plants, Nursing Homes, Office Buildings / Campuses, Radio Stations, Refrigerated Warehouses, Resorts, Restaurants, Schools, Server Farms, Shopping Centers, Supermarkets, Television Stations, Theatres and Military Bases.
At about 86% to 93% net system efficiency, our trigeneration power plants are about 300% more efficient at providing energy than your current electric utility. That's because the typical electric utility's power plants are only about 33% efficient - they waste 2/3 of the fuel in generating electricity in the enormous amount of waste heat energy that they exhaust through their smokestacks.
Trigeneration is defined as the simultaneous production of three energies: Cooling, Heating and Power. Our trigeneration energy systems use the same amount of fuel in producing three energies that would normally only produce just one type of energy. This means our customers that have our trigeneration power plants have significantly lower energy expenses, and a lower carbon footprint.
Linked to the Loss of Polar Bears
Photo courtesy of Alaska Image Library. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Products, Services and Additional Information
Absorption Chillers * Architecture * Battery Energy Storage * Buildings of the Future
CHP Systems * Clean Power Generation * Cogeneration * Clean Power Generation
Compressed Air Energy Storage * Distributed PV * EcoGeneration * Emissions Abatement
Energy Master Planning * Evacuated Tube Collectors * Flat Plate Collectors * Flywheel Energy Storage
Mechanical Electrical Plumbing * Micro-Grid * Net Zero Energy * Net Zero Energy Building Upgrades
Pumped Hydro Storage * Renewable Energy Technologies * Rooftop PV * Solar Cogeneration
Solar Thermal Systems * Solar Trigeneration * Rooftop PV * Trigeneration * Waste Heat Recovery
Net Zero Energy Buildings Are Coming - What About The Buildings Already Standing?
American Energy Plan
Support America's Domestic Oil and Gas
resources and companies
NO FOREIGN OIL!
Support America's Renewable
resources and companies
We support the Renewable Energy Institute by donating a portion of our profits to the
Renewable Energy Institute
in their efforts to reduce fossil fuel use by transitioning to Renewable
Energy Technologies and reducing/eliminating Carbon
Dioxide Emissions and Greenhouse
The Renewable Energy Institute is "Changing The Way The World Makes and Uses Energy" SM by providing research & development, funding and resources that reduce the cost of Renewable Energy Technologies and making a faster transition to Carbon Free Energy, Clean Power Generation, & Pollution Free Power."
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